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19th century iron key dating
Some small ironmasters tried to group together to get around this issue, with some success.
In addition, British ore was plentiful but contained lots of sulfur and phosphorous which made brittle iron, and the technology to deal with this was lacking.
But the effects of innovation in other industries on iron – in coal, in steam – cannot be overstated, and neither can the effect of iron developments on them.
This was relatively quick but produced brittle iron.
There is a traditional view that the iron industry failed to satisfy the British market during 1700 – 1750, which instead had to rely on imports and couldn’t advance.
The industry was also highly labor intensive and, while the labor supply was good, this produced a very high cost.
Consequently, British iron was used for cheap, poor quality items like nails.
The iron industry began to relocate to coal fields, which usually had iron ore nearby.
Developments elsewhere also helped to boost iron by stimulating demand, such as the increase in steam engines – which needed iron – which in turn boosted iron innovations as one industry bred innovations elsewhere.As the industrial revolution developed, so did the iron industry.A set of innovations, from different materials to new techniques, allowed iron production to expand greatly.This was because iron simply couldn’t meet demand and over half of the iron used came from Sweden.While the British industry was competitive in war, when costs of imports rose, peace was problematic.Around 1750 a steam engine was first used to pump water back up to power a water wheel.This process only lasted a small time as industry became better able to move around as coal took over.Another major development was the Napoleonic Wars, with increased demand by the military for iron and the effects of Napoleon’s attempted blockade of British ports in the Continental System.During 1793 – 1815 British iron production quadrupled. In 1815, when peace broke out, the price of iron and demand fell, but by then Britain had become the largest European producer of iron.1825 has been called the start of the new Iron Age, as the iron industry experienced a massive stimulation from the heavy demand for railways, which needed iron rails, iron in the stock, bridges, tunnels and more.In 1767 Richard Reynolds helped costs fall and raw material travel further by developing the first iron rails although this was superseded by canals.In 1779 the first all iron bridge was built, really demonstrating what could be done with enough iron, and stimulating interest in the material.